Describe three electronic fund transfer operations that can take place without using an ATM.
(Award up to [2 marks] for each full description up to a maximum of [6 marks]. Award only [1 mark] for each operation stated but not described.)
* People have salary deposited automatically in their cash or savings accounts.
* Bank customers have bills paid automatically out of their accounts.
* Many banks allow their customers to use their home computers or their touch-tone phone to transfer money between accounts, get their check balance, pay bills, etc.
* E-commerce uses electronic fund transfer to pay purchases made through the Internet.
Discuss three social implication (positive or negative) of e-commerce.
(Award up to [3 marks] for a full discussion of each social implication up to a maximum of [9 marks]. If each implication is stated but not discussed, award a maximum [1 mark] per implication. Award up to [3 marks] for weighing up the importance of arguments. Maximum total for this part of the question is [12 marks].)
* E-commerce is gradually changing the traditional shopping habits. From their own home, people can browse, choose, order and pay all kind of goods. Options for the customer are unlimited.
* Companies are moving fast to e-commerce. The potential market now is the whole world. This poses new challenges for companies, because customers must be kept by offering an efficient service in a very competitive market.
* Customers can compare products from different companies, from different countries instantly. They can preview the products before making any purchase though they cannot try them beforehand. They are not able to “see” the company with which they are dealing.
* If the company doesn’t offer a secure site, personal and financial data can be accessed by unwanted people who might cause problems to the customer, like stealing the Credit Card number for illegal use, spamming, selling personal data to third parties, etc.
* E-commerce may produce “the death of the high street” with a growing number of people buying online from home.
State two ways in which children can locate information on the World Wide Web for their school work.
(Award [1 mark] for each item stated up to a maximum of [2 marks].)
* go to a web site which is a “homework” helper for children;
* use a search engine especially designed for children;
* click on the links found on school’s web site to navigate to appropriate Web sites.
Describe three health issues for children related to the intensive use of computers and describe how each of them can be avoided.
(Award up to [2 marks] for each health issue fully described up to a maximum of [6 marks].
Award only [1 mark] for each health issue stated but not described.)
Health risks and ways of avoiding them:
* Eye strain can be avoided by using such measures as purchasing an appropriate monitor, placing the monitor in a suitable position, providing suitable lighting in the room, frequent breaks looking away from the monitor.
* Repetitive stress injury (RSI) can be avoided by using such measures as providing the appropriate chair and table height so that arms are aligned at 90 degree angles to the keyboard, purchasing smaller keyboards and mice, big trackballs.
* Pain in the neck and back due to lack of movement can be assisted by purchasing cordless keyboards and mice which allow some freedom of movement; providing software to prompt breaks away from the computer.
* Tingling in the fingers, numbness can be avoided by limiting the amount spent on playing computer games such as Nintendo.
* Back aches can be avoided by such measures as purchasing an appropriate computer chair or placing a rolled towel at the small of the child’s back, and placing of the legs at 90 degree angles.
Children often play computer games and online interactive games during their leisure time. Discuss three social effects which computer games could have on children other than ergonomic or health issues.
(Award up to [3 marks] for a full discussion of each social effect up to a maximum of [9 marks]. If each social effect is stated but not discussed, award a maximum [1 mark] per effect. Award up to [3 marks] for weighing up the importance of arguments. Maximum total for this part of the question is [12 marks].)
* Some games are violent and can influence children to perform violent acts.
* Computer games are expensive and some children cannot afford them.
* Computer games are not translated in to all foreign languages.
* Many computer games require extra expense in game control devices and/or Internet connection.
* Children can become addicted to playing certain games.
* Extensive use of computer games can make children become insular, possibly antisocial and unable to mix with peers.
Outline two possible uses of WANs (wide area networks) in health care.
(Award [1 mark] for each item indicated below up to a maximum of [2 marks]. A brief account is required, not simply a list. Award a maximum [1 mark] if items are only listed.)
* telemedicine – counselling via the Internet, remote surgery
* electronic health record keeping
* electronic prescription
* clinical messaging e.g. sending radiology or pathology reports between doctors
File compression is often used when large files are sent across networks. Explain two benefits and one limitation of using file compression when sending medical information.
(Award up to [2 marks] for each complete explanation of each benefit and for the limitation up to a maximum of [6 marks]. Award only [1 mark] for each one that is only stated).)
* File compression allows large files such as X-rays to be sent across networks. Without compression the files would be too large to download.
* High resolution picture of a wound or other medical visible symptom or sign can be sent for diagnosis between doctors.
* Medical studies in graphical form, e.g. visual studies, ear studies, scans of pregnancy, can be sent across a network.
* Compression may result in loss of detail or loss of color.
* This could result in an inaccurate diagnosis e.g. loss of detail in an X-Ray or difficulty in making the right diagnosis e.g. loss of colour in coloured scans or colored photographs.
* Recipient of the file may not have the appropriate software to decompress it.
Discuss three social impacts (positive or negative) resulting from the possibility of sending personal health records through a WAN.
(Award up to [3 marks] for a discussion of each of three impacts up to a maximum of [9 marks]. Award [1 mark] if the impact is only stated. Award up to [3 marks] for evaluating the arguments. These three marks could be awarded for: (i) weighing up the positive and negative aspects of each impact and deciding if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, (ii) commenting on the overall importance of each of the three impacts, (iii) deciding on the importance of each impact and indicating a hierarchy of importance. Maximum total for this part of the question is [12 marks].)
* Eliminates duplication of testing e.g. central access to results of tests.
* Allows instant access to medial records in the case of an emergency.
* Provides portability – patients can take their electronic records anywhere they go.
* Shareability – records can be accessed by many programs.
* Allows records to be sent anywhere in the world with speed and accuracy.
* Medical reports can be produced quickly based on the information transmitted through the WAN.
* Security – how secure are the records? Could hackers obtain this information?
* Networks are potentially accessible to viruses, especially if email is provided.
* Data may become inaccessible if the network “goes down”.
* Retraining will be needed.
Describe one problem caused by a human disability (educational or physical) that this computer may help to overcome.
Award up to [2 marks] for a full description of a problem (i.e. both the disability and the problem it may cause in the use of a computer). Award only [1 mark] if the problem is only stated.
* A visually-impaired person (blind or some other visual problem) would have difficulty reading the screen on a conventional computer.
* A person who suffers from dyslexia or some similar visual comprehension problem would have difficulty interpreting information from the screen of a conventional computer.
Describe how this computer may help to overcome the problem you have described in part (a).
Award up to [2 marks] for a full description of the help given (i.e. both the effect and how the computer achieves that effect). Award only [1 mark] for a partial description with only one aspect described.
* Visual medical problems would be overcome by the speech being synthesized and read aloud to the user.
* Visual comprehension problems would be overcome by the speech being synthesized and read aloud to the user.
Discuss two policies which should be implemented to ensure widespread distribution of these machines to those who will benefit from them.
Award [1 mark] for each of the descriptions below up to a maximum of [2 marks].
Award a further [1 mark] for some discussion of each policy. Maximum [4 marks].
* Developers might keep costs low by using low-cost components.
* Developers might license their software for general use waiving copyright fees.
* Developers might sell the computer on a non-profit basis.
* The computers may be made available through hospitals (or other agencies used by the disabled).
* The computer should contain synthesizers in a variety of languages.
Discuss three social impacts that could arise from the availability of inexpensive online access to the web across the global society.
Award up to [3 marks] for each impact which is fully discussed up to a total of [9 marks]. Award a maximum of [1 mark] for each impact which is only stated up to a maximum of [3 marks]. Award [1 mark] for each piece of evidence of weighing up and/or evaluation of any of the arguments or any combination of the arguments up to a maximum of [3 marks]. Award a maximum of [12 marks].
* Information about educational and employment opportunities can reach information remote communities.
* Access to education can help to reduce illiteracy.
* Greater employment possibilities in poor communities encourages the development of the local and national economies.
* Accept answers relating to the visually impaired or other disabilities covered in earlier parts.
Reward other acceptable answers. Answers that raise issues of a general and are not specific to global use (e.g. general Internet issues such as plagiarism, addiction, health issues) may only be awarded a maximum of 1 mark. Further marks can only be awarded for direct and specific reference to global use (e.g. education in LDCs, crop yields in rural communities, increased cross-communication for disabled people worldwide).